Wednesday, October 2, 2019

Chemistry Term Paper :: essays research papers

Organic chemistry is the study of essentially all substances containing carbon. Organic compounds that contain only carbon and hydrogen are called hydrocarbons. The simplest hydrocarbons are the alkanes which contain only single covalent bonds. Methane is the simplest alkane. It is also the major component of natural gas. Methane contains only 1 carbon in the molecular formula and the structural formula. There is ethane which is 2 carbons, propane that is 3, butane which is 4, pentane which is 5 and so on. There are also alkenes. Alkenes are hydrocarbons containing carbon-carbon double covalent bonds, and last but not least there is the alkynes which are hydrocarbons containing carbon-carbon triple covalent bonds. They also have different names. Alkanes end with –ane. Alkenes end with –ene, and alkynes end with –yne. In organic chemistry there are also isomers, isomers are One of two or more compounds that have the same chemical formula but different arrangement s of the atoms within the molecules and that may have different physical/chemical properties. For example, CH3OCH3 and C2H5OH are isomers. They both have the same amount of carbon atoms but are arranged differently. Organic chemistry is used EVERYWHERE. For example methane, which is a gas produced by flatulence, that gas is also found in marshes.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  An acid is a compound that produces hydrogen ions when dissolved in water. Therefore, the chemical formulas of acids are of the general form HX, where X is a monatomic or polyatomic ion. When the name of the anion ends in –ide, the acid name begins with the prefix hydro-. The stem of the anion has the suffix –ic and is followed by the word acid. Therefore, HCL is named hydrochloric acid. When the anion name ends in –ite, the acid name is the stem of the anion with the suffix –ous, followed by the word acid. Thus H2SO3 is named sulfurous acid. When the anion name ends in –ate, the acid name is the stem of the anion with the suffix –ic, followed by the word acid. Thus HNO3 is named Nitric acid. A base is a compound that produced hydroxide ions when dissolved in water. Ionic compounds that are bases are named in the same way as any other ionic compound—the name of the cation followed by the name of the anion. For examp le, NaOH a base used in making soap and detergents is called sodium hydroxide.

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