Wednesday, September 4, 2019
The Beginning of Human Life Form Essay -- Artificial Protocells Essays
The Beginning of Human Life Form As science and technology advance, an understanding of the origin of life becomes a feasible possibility. Artificial life research seeks to mimic life and to gain knowledge of the origin of life through reenacting it. This research strives to create the simplest possible Ã¢â¬Å"organismÃ¢â¬ that fulfills all of the requirements of life. These researchers define life as that which can evolve, self-reproduce, metabolize, adapt to environmental changes, and, ultimately, die. A fundamental concept behind research attempts is emergent properties, those that arise in more complex levels and are not predictable from the properties of lower hierarchical levels. Researchers use two approaches to create protolife: the Ã¢â¬Å"bottom upÃ¢â¬ approach strives to create life from nonliving components, while the Ã¢â¬Å"top downÃ¢â¬ approach attempts to simplify living cells to create the simplest possible cell and thus give a glimpse of a possible form of the first living cell. The Ã¢â¬Å"bottom upÃ¢â¬ approach seems to be the more widely attempted method because it is believed that if nature had to start with simple building blocks, we should do the same. There are two theories about the order in which life emerged; Ã¢â¬Å"one [Ã¢â¬ ¦] assumes the primacy of metabolism and cellular organization [while] the other [Ã¢â¬ ¦] assumes the primacy of reproduction and genetic informationÃ¢â¬ (Lifson). Thus, much relevant research focuses on determining whether the origin of life began with self-replicating, information storing molecules (such as RNA or PNA) or with other molecules such as lipids or proteins (which form, for instance, encapsulating membranes). Whatever the order in which these characteristics evolved, there are three components a protocell m... ... Internet document accessed 11/21/04. http://www.geocities.com/giantfideli/ CellNEWS_Scientists_to_Create_A_New_Form_of_Life.html Lifson, Shneior. Ã¢â¬Å"On the Crucial Stages in the Origin of Animate Matter.Ã¢â¬ Journal of Molecular Evolution (1997) 44:1-8. Rasmussen, Chen, et al. Ã¢â¬Å"Transitions from Nonliving to Living Matter.Ã¢â¬ Science. Volume 303. 02/13/04. Rasmussen, Steen, et al. Bridging Nonliving and Living Matter. (2003). Bada, Jeffrey L. and Antonio Lazeano. Ã¢â¬Å"Prebiotic SoupÃ¢â¬âRevisiting the Miller Experiment.Ã¢â¬ Science. Vol. 300: 745-56. May 2003. Ã¢â¬Å"Scientists Create a Virus.Ã¢â¬ CreationTalk.com Forum. Internet document accessed 11/21/04. http://www.creationtalk.com/message-board-forum/viewtopic.php?t= 482&view=next Zimmer, Carl. Ã¢â¬Å"What Came before DNA?Ã¢â¬ Discover. Vol. 25: 34-41. June 2004.